Monthly Archives: September 2016

In my high school…

I teach a discussion class. One of the most recent topics for discussion was comparing the English classes my students had in their many different (are they..?) high schools across the country and discussion classes at university, i.e. our classes. As the 13 groups of students I teach were having their discussions, I was making notes.

The aim of this post is to share students’ views that probably build some picture of what an English learning environment in many high schools around Japan is. If the words of 110 kids are anything to trust and go by. While one might not like the picture, it may or may not be representative of many, many classrooms in other countries. Or is it? Your comments are very welcome.

In my high school…

… I only hear the teacher talking.

… textbooks are too difficult.

… I didn’t have to think in class!

… no group work

… my teacher says, “Be quiet!”

… we sit all the time.

… purpose is grammar.

… students are quiet.

… silent class (teacher talks)

… “Repeat after me”

… we have paper test.

… we are only taught by teacher, passive.

… teacher is the main person.

… teacher teaches me one way, we can’t interact, no communication.

… teacher uses Japanese all the time.

… I speak only textbook! I don’t say my ideas.

… teacher says, “Don’t mistake grammar.”

… teacher always speaking, students always listening. This is not fun.

… I see target every day – memorize new words!

… teacher and students are far, students are not interested in teacher.

… we studied English.

… perfect English is important.

… we don’t have opportunity to listen to other people’s opinion.

… students face front.

… makes me sleepy.

… I only write English.

… teacher doesn’t talk to students, sometimes “Do you know…?”

*****

I wonder if what strikes me as powerful does the same for you. It’s obvious from these notes that the picture is far from happy. Yet… I don’t want to make this post a triumph show of a speaking class so I won’t be sharing my notes from the other side of their discussions talking about our class. In fact, it’s not even fair to be comparing classes that have dramatically different goals. What’s important, students seem well aware of these goals, so that is a good sign. I will, however, share the disadvantages of Discussion Class that I heard pronounced by the same students. And then I’ll leave you to decide if there’s something to it or not.

The disadvantages of Discussion Class…

I forget grammar and difficult words (I learnt many words in high school but couldn’t use them).

Morning is difficult to wake up, and think and speak English.

I can’t memorize new phrases.

When I make a mistake, nobody tells me.

We can communicate only by words, so grammar is broken.

We are all Japanese people, so we can’t hear native English, it is fast and difficult to understand.

I’m worried that I can’t speak to foreigners.

I can’t tell my opinion completely.

I don’t “study” English!

A little hard, after class I’m tired.

I am very tired because I talk more compared to daily life and other class.

I get very sad when I can’t convey my idea.

*****

Listening to students is always so much fun. I don’t share the opinion that we can’t learn from teenagers or kids who we teach because they don’t have anything to offer to us. I believe if you listen, you will hear.

Here are some random gems, fun or funny or smart or interesting, that I picked from those same discussions. Someting there made me smile and/or put it down to paper.

  1. I want to eat another country. 
  2. Foreigners are cool, tall, face is cool, blond hair, long nose.
  3. In the world, speaking skill is most important. Even if I forget grammar, I can still speak.
  4. Most of Japanese teachers think that grammar is most important, but when you speak it’s not. I can communicate without correct grammar. Important is our thinking, our ideas, our feelings.
  5. Is it good to speak only English in class?

 

Really, is it?…

Thank you for reading.

 

*****

And now, my turn. In my high school (Moscow, 2001-2003) my English classes were very boring. The teacher always sat down at her desk, called our names from the register, and then we checked our homework. We read and translated boring texts, we translated boring sentences from Russian into English, we probably did some grammar exercises but I can’t be sure. It’s all a blur. I barely learnt any English at school. And the teacher… well, she looked so bored and tired and miserable all the time. I feel sorry for her now, I don’t think she wanted to be there in the first place.

 

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Articulated beliefs

“Methods are of little interest” 

L.G. Kelly

I entered my current job with what could be called an average (for an English teacher in Russia) academic background – 5 years at an English Philology department of a pedagogical university – and approximately ten years of teaching experience. In those years, I taught in a variety of classrooms, from General English courses in a small private comprehensive school to an ESP course for Physics majors at a renowned Russian university. Yet, in that range of contexts, over the years, I did not deliberately consider the principles of Communicative Language Teaching when planning my classes. What I did in the classroom was not determined by any particular methodologies but rather by course goals, suggested materials (in the more rigidly structured workplaces that I had to work), and, more recently and importantly, by my students’ needs.

Were I to discuss the “best” ways to teach, I would state without hesitation that these ways, if they even exist, are not wisdoms encapsulated in methods. In fact, methods are nothing without contexts and the teachers and students that constitute these individual contexts. In this way, I am ready to confess that my teaching has been, knowingly or unknowingly, method-free. My teaching beliefs do not originate in methods but rather have developed from my own experience learning foreign languages, from my teaching experience, from professional discussions with colleagues teaching English in various contexts in different countries, and from attending and presenting at ELT conferences.

Below I would like to introduce and comment in a little more detail on the teaching beliefs about learning languages that I value the most, hold true, and attempt to apply, in this or that form, in my lessons. 

  • Language learning should be centered in human nature. Language learning, above all, is a social activity. The people in a classroom are the most significant elements to the learning and teaching that takes place and their interaction determines the quality of classroom experiences. The emotional “bridge” of a connection between students and a teacher, the rapport that is gradually and mutually established, both students’ and teacher’s motivation and involvement in learning process and class activities – these are top priorities and necessary conditions underlying successful learning environments.
  • A language classroom should have plenty of room for flexibility and spontaneity. I see language as more than an entity encompassing combinations of vocabulary chunks and grammar structures, but rather as our interaction with the world in real time. Dogme as sort of a teaching philosophy, in which the central idea is teaching from students’ emergent needs and limiting the reliance on ready-made materials, has been one of the most beneficial influences on my teaching style for the past four years in all of my classrooms.  
  • Writing is a necessary, even crucial skill in language learning. Writing helps and reinforces speaking as it provides sufficient time and focus for organizing thoughts, structuring language both in form and content. Overall, consistent and varied writing experience improves language learning in aspects other than writing itself.
  • Language learning should be a conscious, reflective process and it is a teacher’s job to equip learners with tools for reflection, such as portfolios, learning logs of different types, a chance to co-construct a syllabus, etc. Students need to be aware of what they are doing for their learning in and out of the classroom and why, as well as consider the ways to improve their learning experience and results. Reflection in a systematic way may ensure progress and consistently high levels of motivation.

It might be argued that a few of the aforementioned beliefs could lead to somewhat unstructured classes in which it would be an additional challenge for both a teacher and students to chart progress. While this has sometimes been the case, I have always managed to find balance, remain on track, or adjust initial study plans. I consider myself fortunate to have taught in working environments that allowed me, to a large extent, to practice what I preach and experiment with new ideas. Consequently, my view of language learning as a social, emotionally engaging process that benefits from being, in a sense, unsystematic was confirmed time and again through positive feedback from my students.

During the FEELTA-AsiaTEFL conference held in Vladivostok in July 2016, in his presentation “What drives your classroom teaching?” Dr. Philip Chappell suggested a framework for interrogating teaching beliefs for all practicing teachers. His studies have shown that what teachers believe to be true about language learning and teaching and what teachers really do in class can either converge or diverge. For me in my current position, the dramatic change that this new teaching context brought about for my behavior in class makes more transparent than ever the converging and especially diverging nature of my current teaching practices and my own beliefs. For the sake of clarity, I will classify the beliefs I’ll be talking about into the following three types:

  • converging beliefs – previously held principles that match with my current teaching practice;
  • diverging beliefs – previously held principles that clash with my current teaching practice;
  • emerging beliefs – principles that arose from my current teaching practice.

Converging Beliefs

Language learning should be a conscious, reflective process. From the first lesson in my new job, I could see the significance and potential of using suggested self-assessment lists. The idea of allocating time during class for students to make a reflective pause, analyze their performance, and set their personal goals for the next stage in class (or future lessons) accordingly appealed to me. For every lesson in the term I was using my own variation of a self-check list with every group of students, redesigning it as needed, and developing it to suit my students’ needs as I saw them. New versions of self-check lists incorporated more than the original ticking of the boxes for the used target language: the reflection included gap-fills to assess their own strengths and weaknesses, questions to ask and answer in pairs, and questions to reflect on group discussion performance.

Although the implementation of this way of self-assessment has proven to be quite effective with the majority of students, in the future I would like to bring this reflection to a new level by experimenting with a more extended reflective dialogue. It might include open-ended questions for student-student discussion and/or micro-writing reflective activities for a teacher-student dialogue.

Diverging Beliefs

Language learning should be centered in human nature. In his book “50 Ways to Be a Better Teacher: Professional Development Techniques” Chris Mares suggests that “…we should not only be sensitive to each student in their individuality and entirety, but we should also treat the class as a community that requires nurturing. In this way, the teacher is an integral part of a shared experience, rather than simply a director of activities… Last semester, for what could be the first time in my teaching career I felt very strongly like a director of activities. This “director” leads students through the stages of any given lesson towards expected results step by step, task by task, without an odd minute to pause, breathe, acknowledge the people in the classroom, their moods, needs, real-life problems, and their possible impact on the performance. By the middle of the term I realized that I had failed to establish the quality of rapport that would be satisfactory and in accordance with the expectations that I have of myself as a teacher. A relationship between a class and a teacher takes time to develop (especially so here in Japan, to my observations), but with the rigid plan to stick to at all costs, the very notion and necessity of building a relationship slipped from the area of my priorities, which had quite a negative emotional influence on me. In the first half of the semester there was a significant shift of focus for me, both intentionally and unconsciously, from the people in the classroom to the plan to follow to the letter, from the learning that was taking place to the plan I was/am to follow to the letter. In the next semester I plan to pay more deliberate attention to the process of building and nurturing a community with every group of students that I teach. I will try to remember to communicate more openly and willingly. I will try to remember to acknowledge my students as individuals to empathize and connect with, not merely as recipients of instruction, no matter how student-centered it is.    

Emerging Beliefs

Consistency breeds success. The idea that for most teachers must come as a self-evident matter of course was quite a powerful realization for me: language learners benefit greatly from learning with consistency, learning within a clear system. I have mentioned before that one of the ways my personal teaching beliefs affected my teaching practice in the past was a rather fluid, unstructured, emergent nature of the courses I taught. Last semester, teaching in the *very structured* way I had not taught before, I could observe a tangible, huge improvement most students made in meeting the course goals, and I was convinced.   

While I still hold on to my firm belief that methods are secondary in the success on the path of learning a foreign language, the past four months of teaching gave me an important opportunity to reconsider my beliefs by “doing it another way.” It has certainly been a most eye-opening experience to teach against and in spite of ingrained beliefs. Such an experience, as I have learnt, can be liberating given the right attitude and perspective. Beliefs are not or do not have to be postulates rigidly regulating our teaching behavior and choices for the whole length of our careers. In fact, a lot more can be learnt from the exact opposite context of what we are accustomed to than from persisting in teaching the same way for years on end.

*****

Thank you for making your way through this article to the end. What you’ve read is about 73% (also slightly edited) of my self-reflection “paper” that I was preparing myself for writing in the previous blog post. It was not easy to identify those beliefs but I can recommend anyone to sit down and do so.

And I am thinking now… it is true that we as teachers should be open to change and learning what we can from it. But we should also stay true to who we are, no matter what conditions we find ourselves working in.

Thank you for reading.

 

 

 

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